Improving ethanol and xylitol fermentation at elevated temperature through substitution of xylose reductase in Kluyveromyces marxianus

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013 Apr;40(3-4):305-16. doi: 10.1007/s10295-013-1230-5. Epub 2013 Feb 8.


Thermo-tolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus is able to utilize a wide range of substrates, including xylose; however, the xylose fermentation ability is weak because of the redox imbalance under oxygen-limited conditions. Alleviating the intracellular redox imbalance through engineering the coenzyme specificity of NADPH-preferring xylose reductase (XR) and improving the expression of XR should promote xylose consumption and fermentation. In this study, the native xylose reductase gene (Kmxyl1) of the K. marxianus strain was substituted with XR or its mutant genes from Pichia stipitis (Scheffersomyces stipitis). The ability of the resultant recombinant strains to assimilate xylose to produce xylitol and ethanol at elevated temperature was greatly improved. The strain YZB014 expressing mutant PsXR N272D, which has a higher activity with both NADPH and NADH as the coenzyme, achieved the best results, and produced 3.55 g l(-1) ethanol and 11.32 g l(-1) xylitol-an increase of 12.24- and 2.70-fold in product at 42 °C, respectively. A 3.94-fold increase of xylose consumption was observed compared with the K. marxianus YHJ010 harboring KmXyl1. However, the strain YZB015 expressing a mutant PsXR K21A/N272D, with which co-enzyme preference was completely reversed from NADPH to NADH, failed to ferment due to the low expression. So in order to improve xylose consumption and fermentation in K. marxianus, both higher activity and co-enzyme specificity change are necessary.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aldehyde Reductase / genetics
  • Aldehyde Reductase / metabolism*
  • Coenzymes / metabolism
  • D-Xylulose Reductase / genetics
  • D-Xylulose Reductase / metabolism
  • Ethanol / metabolism*
  • Fermentation*
  • Hot Temperature
  • Kluyveromyces / genetics
  • Kluyveromyces / metabolism*
  • Mutation
  • NAD / metabolism
  • NADP / metabolism
  • Pichia / genetics
  • Xylitol / metabolism*
  • Xylose / metabolism


  • Coenzymes
  • NAD
  • Ethanol
  • NADP
  • Xylose
  • Aldehyde Reductase
  • D-Xylulose Reductase
  • Xylitol