In proteomics, detergents and chaotropes are indispensable for proteome analysis, not only for protein extraction, but also for protein digestion. To increase the protein extraction efficiency, detergents are usually added in the lysis buffer to extract membrane proteins out of membrane structure and to maintain protein in solutions. In general, these detergents need to be removed prior to protein digestion, usually by precipitation or ultrafiltration. Digestion often takes place in the presence of chaotropic reagents, such as urea, which often need to be removed prior to mass spectrometry. The addition and removal of detergents and chaotropes require multiple steps that are time-consuming and can cause sample losses. Amphipols (APols) are a different class of detergents that have physical and solubilization properties that are distinct from conventional detergents. They have primarily been used in protein structure analysis for membrane protein trapping and stabilization. Here, we demonstrate a simple and rapid protocol for total and membrane proteome preparation using APols. We demonstrate that APols added for cell lysis help maintain the proteome in solution, are compatible with protein digestion using trypsin, and can readily be removed prior to mass spectrometry by a one-step acidification and centrifugation. This protocol is much faster, can be performed in a single tube, and can readily replace the conventional detergent/chaotrope approaches for total and membrane proteome analysis.