Low cost anatomically realistic renal biopsy phantoms for interventional radiology trainees

Eur J Radiol. 2013 Apr;82(4):594-600. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2012.12.020. Epub 2013 Feb 8.


This paper describes manufacturing of economically affordable renal biopsy phantoms for radiology residents and practicing radiologists. We reconstructed a realistic 3-dimensional patient-specific kidney model from CT data, manufactured an organ mould and casted the kidney phantoms. Using gelatin gel materials with calibrated parameters allowed making phantoms with realistic mechanical, ultrasound and CT properties including various pathologies. The organ phantoms with cysts included were further casted into gelatin gel medium. They were validated by radiology residents in biopsy training and compared against self-made phantoms traditionally used in the curriculum of interventional radiology. The realism, durability, price and suitability for training were evaluated. The results showed that our phantoms are more realistic and easier to use than the traditional ones. Our proposed technology allows creating a low-cost (50$/kg) alternative to the pricy commercial training phantoms available today.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biopsy / methods*
  • Calibration
  • Elastic Modulus
  • Gels
  • Humans
  • Kidney*
  • Phantoms, Imaging* / economics
  • Radiology, Interventional / education*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Gels