Cell growth is regulated by coordination of both extracellular nutrients and intracellular metabolite concentrations. AMP-activated kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 serve as key molecules that sense cellular energy and nutrients levels, respectively. In addition, the members of the dioxygenase family, including prolylhydroxylase, lysine demethylase, and DNA demethylase, have emerged as possible sensors of intracellular metabolic status. The interplay among nutrients, metabolites, gene expression, and protein modification are involved in the coordination of cell growth with extracellular and intracellular conditions.
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