Modern research acknowledges that psychopathology and individual differences in normal development are the joint products of both biological and social influences. Although there have been numerous publications on Gene × Environment interactions in the past decade, gene-environment correlation is another important form of gene-environment interplay that has received less attention. This Special Section demonstrates, using a range of methodological approaches, the importance of gene-environment correlation in developmental psychopathology. Several types of gene-environment correlation are described, including passive, evocative, and active. Other studies highlight the potential for gene-environment correlation to obscure associations between risk exposures and child psychopathology. Future directions for gene-environment correlation research are discussed.