Transfusion-Associated HIV Infection in Pediatric Leukemia Patients (Two Case Reports)

Iran J Pediatr. 2012 Sep;22(3):417-20.


Background: Leukemia is the second most malignant tumor in children. The chemotherapy induced anemia (CIA) and hemorrhage are the most popular side-effects due to the myelosuppression of chemotherapy. So far, multitransfusion is still the timely and effective measure in curing these complications. The acquisition of HIV infection and subsequent development of AIDS by component transfusion from donors at risk is well known, and prognosis of HIV infection is particularly severe in patients with leukemia.

Case presentation: We report two leukemic cases that were infected with HIV through transfusion. The first patient was totally transfused with 16 U RBC, 20 U platelets and 820 ml fresh frozen plasma, and later test showed that his first used FFP carried the HIV. For the second 2 U RBC, 5 U platelets and 1500 ml fresh frozen plasma were transfused to her. Late test of her used blood products showed that the fourth RBC carried the HIV. Both results were confirmed by the local Center for Disease Control (CDC). They were not transfused before the diagnosis of leukemia. Their parents were healthy with negative HIV-Ab.

Conclusion: Since the two leukemic patients suffered transfusion-associated HIV with poor prognosis, we must take more efforts to utilize blood products judiciously, manage blood donors, test blood samples etiologically, shorten HIV testing "window periods" and develop preventive vaccination against HIV to reduce the incidence as low as possible.

Keywords: AIDS; Blood Treansfusion; HIV; Leukemia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports