Background & aims: Gastrointestinal polyposis is a common clinical problem, yet there is no consensus on how to best manage patients with moderate-load polyposis. Identifying genetic features of this disorder could improve management and especially surveillance of these patients. We sought to determine the prevalence of hamartomatous polyposis-associated mutations in the susceptibility genes PTEN, BMPR1A, SMAD4, ENG, and STK11 in individuals with ≥5 gastrointestinal polyps, including at least 1 hamartomatous or hyperplastic/serrated polyp.
Methods: We performed a prospective, referral-based study of 603 patients (median age: 51 years; range, 2-89 years) enrolled from June 2006 through January 2012. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral lymphocytes and analyzed for specific mutations and large rearrangements in PTEN, BMPR1A, SMAD4, and STK11, as well as mutations in ENG. Recursive partitioning analysis was used to determine cutoffs for continuous variables. The prevalence of mutations was compared using Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine univariate and multivariate risk factors.
Results: Of 603 patients, 119 (20%) had a personal history of colorectal cancer and most (n = 461 [76%]) had <30 polyps. Seventy-seven patients (13%) were found to have polyposis-associated mutations, including 11 in ENG (1.8%), 13 in PTEN (2.2%), 13 in STK11 (2.2%), 20 in BMPR1A (3.3%), and 21 in SMAD4 (3.5%). Univariate clinical predictors for risk of having these mutations included age at presentation younger than 40 years (19% vs 10%; P = .008), a polyp burden of ≥30 (19% vs 11%; P = .014), and male sex (16% vs 10%; P = .03). Patients who had ≥1 ganglioneuroma (29% vs 2%; P < .001) or presented with polyps of ≥3 histologic types (20% vs 2%; P = .003) were more likely to have germline mutations in PTEN.
Conclusions: Age younger than 40 years, male sex, and specific polyp histologies are significantly associated with risk of germline mutations in hamartomatous-polyposis associated genes. These associations could guide clinical decision making and further investigations.
Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.