Salusin-β in paraventricular nucleus increases blood pressure and sympathetic outflow via vasopressin in hypertensive rats

Cardiovasc Res. 2013 Jun 1;98(3):344-51. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvt031. Epub 2013 Feb 11.


Aims: Salusin-β is a bioactive peptide with peripheral hypotensive, mitogenic and pro-atherosclerotic effects. The present study was designed to determine the roles of salusin-β in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and its relationship with arginine vasopressin (AVP) in hypertension and sympathetic activation.

Methods and results: Renovascular hypertension was induced by two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute experiments were carried out 4 weeks after 2K1C or sham-operation under urethane and alpha-chloralose anaesthesia. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Microinjection of salusin-β into the PVN increased the RSNA, MAP, and HR in a dose-related manner, whereas anti-salusin-β IgG in the PVN decreased the RSNA and MAP, and abolished the effects of salusin-β in 2K1C rats. However, either salusin-β or anti-salusin-β IgG in the PVN failed to cause any significant effects in sham-operated rats. The number of salusin-β-like immunopositive neurons in the PVN was significantly increased in 2K1C rats. Salusin-β in the PVN increased the plasma AVP and norepinephrine levels in 2K1C rats, but not in sham-operated rats. Iv injection of dTyr(CH2)5(Me)AVP (an AVP V1-receptor antagonist, AAVP) decreased RSNA and MAP, and abolished the effects of salusin-β in the PVN in 2K1C rats. Microinjection of AAVP into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), but not into the PVN, abolished the effects of salusin-β on RSNA and HR.

Conclusion: Salusin-β in the PVN increases blood pressure, heart rate, and sympathetic outflow via both circulating AVP and AVP in the RVLM in hypertensive rats.

Keywords: Hypertension; Paraventricular nucleus; Salusin; Sympathetic activity; Vasopressin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin II / blood
  • Animals
  • Antibodies / administration & dosage
  • Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists
  • Arginine Vasopressin / blood
  • Arterial Pressure* / drug effects
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Heart Rate
  • Hormone Antagonists / administration & dosage
  • Hypertension, Renovascular / metabolism*
  • Hypertension, Renovascular / physiopathology
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism*
  • Kidney / innervation*
  • Male
  • Medulla Oblongata / metabolism
  • Medulla Oblongata / physiopathology
  • Microinjections
  • Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus / drug effects
  • Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus / metabolism*
  • Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus / physiopathology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Receptors, Vasopressin / metabolism
  • Sympathetic Nervous System / drug effects
  • Sympathetic Nervous System / metabolism*
  • Sympathetic Nervous System / physiopathology
  • Time Factors


  • Antibodies
  • Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists
  • Hormone Antagonists
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Receptors, Vasopressin
  • salusin-beta, rat
  • Angiotensin II
  • Arginine Vasopressin