In chronic kidney disease (CKD), indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin, accumulates in serum, and the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT) is upregulated in renal proximal tubular cells. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between indoxyl sulfate and the upregulation of AGT expression in proximal tubular cells. Indoxyl sulfate induced expression of AGT in rat renal cortex and in cultured human proximal tubular cells (HK-2). In proximal tubular cells, indoxyl sulfate induced phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) on Ser-133, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific to CREB inhibited indoxyl sulfate-induced AGT expression. Our previous study demonstrated that indoxyl sulfate activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. NF-κB inhibitors (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and isohelenin), NF-κB p65 siRNA, an antioxidant [N-acetylcysteine (NAC)], and a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor [diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)] suppressed indoxyl sulfate-induced AGT expression. Both NAC and DPI suppressed indoxyl sulfate-induced expression of NF-κB p65 and CREB. CREB siRNA suppressed indoxyl sulfate-induced NF-κB p65 expression, whereas both NF-κB inhibitors and NF-κB p65 siRNA prevented indoxyl sulfate-induced CREB expression. Furthermore, we focused on the expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), because indoxyl sulfate induced NOX4 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and vascular endothelial cells. Indoxyl sulfate induced the expression of NOX4 in proximal tubular cells, which was suppressed by NAC, DPI, NF-κB inhibitors, NF-κB p65 siRNA, and CREB siRNA. Taken together, CREB, NF-κB, and NOX4 coordinately upregulate indoxyl sulfate-induced AGT expression in proximal tubular cells.