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. 2013 Apr;103(4):e113-21.
doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.301201. Epub 2013 Feb 14.

Doula Care, Birth Outcomes, and Costs Among Medicaid Beneficiaries

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Doula Care, Birth Outcomes, and Costs Among Medicaid Beneficiaries

Katy Backes Kozhimannil et al. Am J Public Health. .
Free PMC article


Objectives: We compared childbirth-related outcomes for Medicaid recipients who received prenatal education and childbirth support from trained doulas with outcomes from a national sample of similar women and estimated potential cost savings.

Methods: We calculated descriptive statistics for Medicaid-funded births nationally (from the 2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample; n = 279,008) and births supported by doula care (n = 1079) in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 2010 to 2012; used multivariate regression to estimate impacts of doula care; and modeled potential cost savings associated with reductions in cesarean delivery for doula-supported births.

Results: The cesarean rate was 22.3% among doula-supported births and 31.5% among Medicaid beneficiaries nationally. The corresponding preterm birth rates were 6.1% and 7.3%, respectively. After control for clinical and sociodemographic factors, odds of cesarean delivery were 40.9% lower for doula-supported births (adjusted odds ratio = 0.59; P < .001). Potential cost savings to Medicaid programs associated with such cesarean rate reductions are substantial but depend on states' reimbursement rates, birth volume, and current cesarean rates.

Conclusions: State Medicaid programs should consider offering coverage for birth doulas to realize potential cost savings associated with reduced cesarean rates.


State-level estimated annual savings for all states from lower cesarean rates associated with birth doula coverage in Medicaid-funded deliveries, across a range of reimbursement rates, for (a) scenario 1 (rate reduced to 22.3%), (b) scenario 2 (rate reduced by 40.8%), and (c) scenario 3 (rate reduced by 31.6%).

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