Pleuroscopy provides a window to the pleural space while enabling biopsy of the parietal pleura under direct visual guidance for effusions of unknown etiology, guided chest tube placement, and pleurodesis for recurrent pleural effusions or pneumothoraces in selected patients. The procedure enjoyed resurgence when thoracic surgeons introduced the technique for video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). VATS is performed under general anesthesia with single-lung ventilation; pleuroscopy is performed in an endoscopy suite using nondisposable rigid or flex-rigid instruments, local anesthesia, and conscious sedation. Pleuroscopy is less invasive; in this review, we discuss the indications, complications, techniques, and recent advances in the procedure.
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