Right ventricular (RV) volume overload secondary to pulmonary regurgitation is common in patients after initial repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and is associated with adverse long-term outcomes. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of branch pulmonary artery stenosis on the RV volume in patients with repaired TOF. We reviewed 178 cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies in patients with repaired TOF. We defined bilateral stenosis as a Nakata index of ≤200 mm(2)/m(2) and concordant branch pulmonary artery cross-sectional area, unilateral stenosis as 1 branch pulmonary artery cross-sectional area ≤100 mm(2)/m(2) and 1 branch pulmonary artery cross-sectional area >100 mm(2)/m(2), and restrictive physiology as prograde main pulmonary artery diastolic flow. Of the 178 patients, 20 (11%) had bilateral stenosis, 47 (26%) unilateral stenosis, and 111 (63%) had no stenosis. The RV end-diastolic volume was lower in patients with bilateral (125 ± 27 ml/m(2)) or unilateral (131 ± 43 ml/m(2)) stenosis than in those without stenosis (149 ± 35 ml/m(2), p = 0.021 and p = 0.019, respectively). The main pulmonary artery regurgitant fraction was greater in patients without stenosis (47%, range 2% to 69%) than in those with bilateral (33%, range 9% to 59%; p = 0.009) or unilateral stenosis (40%, range 0% to 71%; p = 0.033). Restrictive physiology was more common in patients with bilateral (13 of 15, 87%) or unilateral (21 of 38, 55%) stenosis than in those without stenosis (28 of 85, 33%; p <0.001 and p = 0.017, respectively). In conclusion, in patients with repaired TOF, bilateral and unilateral branch pulmonary artery stenosis was associated with a greater main pulmonary artery regurgitant fraction and smaller RV end-diastolic volume than those in patients without stenosis, likely owing to the development of restrictive physiology. Branch pulmonary artery stenosis might effectively delay the referral for pulmonary valve replacement.
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