Background: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive endocrine malignancy without an available effective systemic chemotherapy. Insulin growth factor 2 (IGF-2) overexpression leading to the activation of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is well described in ACC. Cixutumumab, a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed at IGF-1R was combined with temsirolimus on the basis of preclinical data.
Methods: Patients received cixutumumab, 3-6 mg kg(-1) intravenously (IV) weekly, and temsirolimus, 25-37.5 mg IV weekly (4-week cycles), with restaging after 8 weeks.
Results: Twenty-six patients were enrolled (13 (50%) men); median age, 47 years; median number of prior therapies, 4. Five patients previously received an IGF-1R inhibitor and one, temsirolimus. The most frequent toxicities, at least possibly drug related, were grade 1-2 thrombocytopenia (38%), mucositis (58%), hypercholesterolaemia (31%), hypertriglyceridemia (35%), and hyperglycaemia (31%). In all, 11 of 26 patients (42%) achieved stable disease (SD) >6 months (duration range=6-21 months) with 3 of the 11 having received a prior IGF-1R inhibitor.
Conclusion: Cixutumumab combined with temsirolimus was well tolerated and >40% of patients achieved prolonged SD.