Genomic profiling of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells has enabled a better understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of disease. Besides the t(11;14)(q13;q32) leading to cyclin D1 overexpression, MCL exhibits a characteristic pattern of DNA copy number aberrations that differs from those detected in other B-cell lymphomas. These genomic changes disrupt selected oncogenes and suppressor genes that are required for lymphoma development and progression, many of which are components of cell cycle, DNA damage response and repair, apoptosis, and cell-signaling pathways. Additionally, some of them may represent effective therapeutic targets. A number of genomic and molecular abnormalities have been correlated with the clinical outcome of patients with MCL and are considered prognostic factors. However, only a few genomic markers have been shown to predict the response to current or novel targeted therapies. One representative example is the high-level amplification of the BCL2 gene, which predicts a good response to pro-apoptotic BH3 mimetic drugs. In summary, genomic analyses have contributed to the substantial advances made in the comprehension of the pathogenesis of MCL, providing a solid basis for the identification of optimal therapeutic targets and for the design of new molecular therapies aiming to cure this fatal disease.