Norovirus virus-like particle vaccines for the prevention of acute gastroenteritis

Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013 Feb;12(2):155-67. doi: 10.1586/erv.12.145.


Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. These highly infectious viruses were, until recently, commonly thought to cause a mild, self-limiting disease in healthy individuals, but increasing epidemiology shows that the incidence and severity of illness due to NoV infection is substantial and similar to diseases where immunization is widely recommended. Human NoV challenge studies have identified carbohydrate histo-blood group antigen expression as an important human susceptibility factor for many strains and correspondingly, that antibodies which block carbohydrate virus binding represent a potential correlate of protection against NoV infection and illness. Since human NoVs do not replicate in cell culture, there are numerous challenges to the development of a vaccine to prevent illness or infection. However, the development of NoV virus-like particles (VLPs) has enabled significant progress toward effective vaccine candidates designed to protect against multiple circulating NoV strains. Vaccination with NoV VLP vaccines has been shown to both induce antibodies that block virus-derived VLP carbohydrate binding and protect against homologous viral challenge in a human clinical study.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Antigens, Viral / genetics
  • Antigens, Viral / immunology*
  • Caliciviridae Infections / epidemiology
  • Caliciviridae Infections / prevention & control*
  • Caliciviridae Infections / virology
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Gastroenteritis / epidemiology
  • Gastroenteritis / prevention & control*
  • Gastroenteritis / virology
  • Humans
  • Norovirus / genetics
  • Norovirus / immunology*
  • Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle / genetics
  • Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle / immunology*


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Antigens, Viral
  • Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle