The origins and drivers of insulin resistance

Cell. 2013 Feb 14;152(4):673-84. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.01.041.


Obesity-induced insulin resistance is the major determinant of metabolic syndrome, which precedes the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and is thus the driving force behind the emerging diabetes epidemic. The precise causes of insulin resistance are varied, and the relative importance of each is a matter of ongoing research. Here, we offer a Perspective on the heterogeneous etiology of insulin resistance, focusing in particular on the role of inflammation, lipid metabolism, and the gastrointestinal microbiota.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / microbiology
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Obesity / metabolism