From one-photon to two-photon probes: "caged" compounds, actuators, and photoswitches

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013 Apr 22;52(17):4526-37. doi: 10.1002/anie.201204203. Epub 2013 Feb 18.


Molecular systems that can be remotely controlled by light are gaining increasing importance in cell biology, physiology, and neurosciences because of the spatial and temporal precision that is achievable with laser microscopy. Two-photon excitation has significant advantages deep in biological tissues, but raises problems in the design of "smart" probes compatible with cell physiology. This Review discusses the chemical challenges in generating suitable two-photon probes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon / methods*
  • Cell Physiological Phenomena
  • Chelating Agents / chemistry
  • Macrocyclic Compounds / chemistry*
  • Nitrobenzenes / chemistry
  • Photochemical Processes
  • Photochemistry
  • Photons*
  • Signal Transduction


  • Chelating Agents
  • Macrocyclic Compounds
  • Nitrobenzenes