Long-term prognosis in community-acquired pneumonia

Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013 Apr;26(2):151-8. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32835ebc6d.


Purpose of review: Pneumonia is considered the leading infectious diseases cause of death and the seventh leading cause of death overall in the US. There is significant interest in understanding the relationship between community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and mortality.

Recent findings: Most clinical studies examining patients with CAP have used an arbitrary in-hospital or 30-day mortality as a short-term mortality clinical end point. However, long-term mortality (arbitrary >3 months) factors, incidence, prediction, and implications on patient care are important issues that require further evaluation in patients with CAP. This review focuses on the most recent literature assessing the importance and the frequency of long-term associated outcomes in patients with CAP, the risk factors, and possible implications for future strategies. Multiple risk factors that include age, sex, comorbid conditions, type of pneumonia, and severity of illness are associated with higher long-term mortality. In addition, several biomarkers were demonstrated to be independently associated with long-term mortality.

Summary: Despite advances in the understanding of long-term mortality among CAP patients, there is still a high unacceptable long-term mortality. Public health programs should address this important gap, considering the high level of complexity factors in patients with CAP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Community-Acquired Infections / metabolism
  • Community-Acquired Infections / mortality
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care / methods*
  • Pneumonia / metabolism
  • Pneumonia / mortality*
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors


  • Biomarkers