The authors sought to evaluate the impact of ertapenem use on the resistance of Gram-negative bacteria (in general and in specific species) to group 2 carbapenems. PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched. Eight studies were included; all reported on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and four reported on Enterobacteriaceae. Five studies did not show any difference in group 2 carbapenem resistance for P. aeruginosa, while three reported a significant decline after ertapenem introduction. Three studies did not show any difference in group 2 carbapenem resistance between the compared periods for Enterobacteriaceae and one study did not present a statistical analysis. In conclusion, the currently available data suggest that ertapenem use does not affect the resistance of Gram-negative bacteria to group 2 carbapenems.