Internleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 are the most potent proinflammatory cytokines being involved in inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis. The objective of this study was to examine the synergistic effects of IL-1β and IL-6 on gingival inflammation by targeting cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). HGFs were treated with IL-1β or IL-6/soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R), and total RNA and total cell lysate were collected to examine expression of gp130 known as a signal transducer of IL-6 using qRT-PCR and Western blotting. IL-1β-mediated IL-6 productivity in HGFs was examined using ELISA method. Likewise, after HGFs and THP-1 macrophages were treated with IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6, sIL-6R productivity was examined. Next, HGFs were treated with IL-6/ sIL-6R after pretreatment of IL-1β, and the intracellular signals were examined using Western blotting. Finally, various mRNA/protein expressions in HGFs treated with IL-6/sIL-6R after pretreatment of IL-1β were examined using qRT-PCR and ELISA method. IL-1β increased significantly both gp130 and IL-6 expression in HGFs. IL-6 increased significantly sIL-6R production in THP-1 macrophages but not HGFs. Co-stimulation with IL-1β and IL-6/sIL-6R induced dramatically the phosphorylation of Stat3, ERK and JNK in HGFs. Interestingly, expression of various inflammation- related molecules such as MMP-1, MCP-1, IL-1ra, bFGF and VEGF were enhanced by co-stimulation with IL-1β and IL-6/sIL-6R in HGFs. Gingival inflammation is regulated by HGFs affected by both IL-1β and IL-6/sIL-6R synergistically through induction of gp130 expression, resulting in progression of periodontitis.