High-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation for genome-wide mapping of in vivo protein-DNA interactions and epigenomic states

Nat Protoc. 2013 Mar;8(3):539-54. doi: 10.1038/nprot.2013.023. Epub 2013 Feb 21.


Dynamic protein binding to DNA elements regulates genome function and cell fate. Although methods for mapping in vivo protein-DNA interactions are becoming crucial for every aspect of genomic research, they are laborious and costly, thereby limiting progress. Here we present a protocol for mapping in vivo protein-DNA interactions using a high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation (HT-ChIP) approach. By using paramagnetic beads, we streamline the entire ChIP and indexed library construction process: sample transfer and loss is minimized and the need for manually labor-intensive procedures such as washes, gel extraction and DNA precipitation is eliminated. All of this allows for fully automated, cost effective and highly sensitive 96-well ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq). Sample preparation takes 3 d from cultured cells to pooled libraries. Compared with previous methods, HT-ChIP is more suitable for large-scale in vivo studies, specifically those measuring the dynamics of a large number of different chromatin modifications/transcription factors or multiple perturbations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Binding Sites, Antibody
  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation / methods*
  • Chromosome Mapping / methods
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / chemistry*
  • Epigenesis, Genetic*
  • Genomic Library
  • Interferon Regulatory Factors / chemistry*


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Interferon Regulatory Factors
  • interferon regulatory factor-8