Comparison of modified percutaneous transhepatic variceal embolization and endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection for gastric variceal rebleeding

World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Feb 7;19(5):706-14. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i5.706.


Aim: To compare the efficacy of modified percutaneous transhepatic variceal embolization (PTVE) with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate (2-OCA) and endoscopic variceal obturation (EVO) with an injection of 2-OCA for prophylaxis of gastric variceal rebleeding.

Methods: In this retrospective study, the medical records of liver cirrhosis patients with gastric variceal bleeding who underwent either endoscopic 2-OCA (EVO) or modified PTVE using 2-OCA at Shandong Provincial Hospital from January 2006 to December 2008 were reviewed. Patient demographics, rebleeding rate, survival rate, and complications were compared between the two groups (PTVE and EVO). All results were expressed as mean ± SD, or as a percentage. Quantitative variables were compared by two sample Student t tests, and qualitative variables were compared by the Fisher exact test or the χ² test (with Yates correction) where appropriate. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Statistical computation was performed using SPSS 13.0 software.

Results: A total of 77 patients were included; 45 patients who underwent EVO and 32 patients who received PTVE. During the follow-up (19.78 ± 7.70 mo in the EVO group, vs 21.53 ± 8.56 mo in the PTVE group) rebleeding occurred in 17 patients in the EVO group and in 4 patients in the PTVE group (37.78% vs 12.5%, P = 0.028). The cumulative rebleeding-free rate was 75%, 59%, and 49% in 1, 2, and 3 years respectively for EVO, and 93%, 84%, and 84% for PTVE (P = 0.011). Cox analysis was used to identify independent factors that predicted rebleeding after treatment. Variables including age, gender, cause, Child-Pugh classification, size of gastric varices (GV), location of GV, and treatment methods were analyzed. It was revealed that Child-Pugh classification [risk ratio (RR) 2.10, 95%CI: 1.03-4.28, P = 0.040], choice of treatment (RR 0.25, 95%CI: 0.08-0.80, P = 0.019), and size of GV (RR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.07-4.28, P = 0.032) were the independent factors for predicting rebleeding. Follow-up computed tomography revealed that cyanoacrylate was retained in the varices and in the feeding veins of PTVE patients. During the follow-up, eight patients in the EVO group and four patients in the PTVE group died. The cumulative survival rates at 1, 2, and 3 years were 93%, 84%, and 67% respectively in the EVO group, and 97%, 88%, and 74% respectively in the PTVE group. The survival rates were not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.432). Cox analysis showed that the Child-Pugh classification was the most significant prognostic factor of survival (RR 2.77, 95%CI: 1.12-6.80, P = 0.027). The incidence of complications was similar in both groups.

Conclusion: With extensive and permanent obliteration of gastric varices and its feeding veins, PTVE with 2-OCA is superior to endoscopic 2-OCA injection for preventing gastric variceal rebleeding.

Keywords: 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate; Bleeding; Endoscopic variceal obturation; Gastric varices; Percutaneous transhepatic variceal embolization.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Cyanoacrylates / administration & dosage*
  • Cyanoacrylates / adverse effects
  • Embolization, Therapeutic* / adverse effects
  • Embolization, Therapeutic* / mortality
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / etiology
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / mortality
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / therapy*
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / mortality
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / therapy*
  • Hemostasis, Endoscopic / adverse effects
  • Hemostasis, Endoscopic / methods*
  • Hemostasis, Endoscopic / mortality
  • Hemostatics / administration & dosage*
  • Hemostatics / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Injections
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Liver Cirrhosis / complications
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Cyanoacrylates
  • Hemostatics
  • octyl 2-cyanoacrylate