Aim: To investigate sonographically the effect of Gonogronema latifolium (G. latifolium) on gastric emptying of semi-solid meals in healthy dogs.
Methods: In a randomized, placebo-controlled experiment, twenty-five clinically healthy dogs were randomly allotted into five groups of five dogs in each group. The placebo group served as the control, and the low, moderate and high dose groups ingested the methanolic leaf extract of G. latifolium in capsules at 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, respectively, while the prokinetic group ingested 0.5 mg/kg capsules of metoclopramide. After a 12-h fast, each group ingested its treatment capsules 30 min before the administration of a test meal. Measurements of gastric emptying and blood glucose levels were obtained 30 min before and immediately after the ingestion of the test meal and thereafter every 15 min for 4 h. This was followed by further measurements every 30 min for another 2 h.
Results: The gastric emptying times of the placebo, low dose, moderate dose, high dose and prokinetic dose groups were 127.0 ± 8.2 min, 135.5 ± 3.7 min, 155.5 ± 3.9 min, 198.0 ± 5.3 min and 59.0 ± 2.5 min, respectively. Gastric emptying times of the moderate and high dose groups were significantly slower than in the placebo control group (155.5 ± 3.9 min, 198.0 ± 5.3 min vs 127.0 ± 8.2 min, P = 0.000). No significant difference in gastric emptying between the low dose and placebo control groups was noted (135.5 ± 3.7 min vs 127.0 ± 8.2 min, P = 0.072). Gastric emptying of the prokinetic group was significantly faster than that of the control group (59.0 ± 2.5 min vs 127.0 ± 8.2 min, P = 0.000). The hypoglycaemic effect of G. latifolium and gastric emptying were inversely related (r = -0.95, P = 0.000).
Conclusion: G. latifolium delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose in healthy dogs. It reduces the postprandial blood glucose by delaying gastric emptying.
Keywords: Gastric emptying; Gonogronema latifolium; Postprandial blood glucose; Semi-solid meals; Sonography.