Individualization of tacrolimus dosage basing on cytochrome P450 3A5 polymorphism--a prospective, randomized, controlled study

Clin Transplant. May-Jun 2013;27(3):E272-81. doi: 10.1111/ctr.12101. Epub 2013 Feb 24.


We investigated how cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A5 polymorphism affects pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and its interaction with diltiazem in Chinese kidney transplant recipients. Sixty-two CYP3A5 expressers and 58 non-expressers were, respectively, randomized to receive diltiazem supplement or not. Their pharmacokinetic profiles were acquired on 14th day, sixth month, and 18th month post-transplant and compared among groups. A dosing equation was fit based on above data with CYP3A5 genotype and diltiazem co-administration as variables. Then, necessary initial doses with or without diltiazem were calculated and used in 11 CYP3A5 expressers, respectively, when another 11 expressers received routine doses as control. Trough concentration was measured on the third-day post-transplant and patients failed to reach target range were presented in percentage. These two parameters were compared among three groups. Patients were followed up until June 2010, kidney function, biopsy-proved acute rejection, and other adverse events were monitored. Results showed that CYP3A5 expressers needed more tacrolimus to reach therapeutic concentration window and were more susceptible to diltiazem-induced concentration increase than CYP3A5 non-expressers. CYP3A5 polymorphism-guided dosing equation helped to determine appropriate initial doses of tacrolimus in individuals. In conclusion, CYP3A5 polymorphism profoundly influences pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and helps to individualize tacrolimus dose.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Area Under Curve
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A / genetics*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Genotype
  • Graft Rejection / drug therapy
  • Graft Rejection / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Kidney Diseases / genetics
  • Kidney Diseases / surgery*
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Male
  • Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics*
  • Precision Medicine*
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Tacrolimus / administration & dosage*
  • Tacrolimus / pharmacokinetics
  • Tissue Distribution


  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • CYP3A5 protein, human
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
  • Tacrolimus