The cycle of bias in health research: a framework and toolbox for critical appraisal training

Account Res. 2013;20(2):127-41. doi: 10.1080/08989621.2013.768931.


Recognizing bias in health research is crucial for evidence-based decision making. We worked with eight community groups to develop materials for nine modular, individualized critical appraisal workshops we conducted with 102 consumers (four workshops), 43 healthcare providers (three workshops), and 33 journalists (two workshops) in California. We presented workshops using a "cycle of bias" framework, and developed a toolbox of presentations, problem-based small group sessions, and skill-building materials to improve participants' ability to evaluate research for financial and other conflicts of interest, bias, validity, and applicability. Participant feedback indicated that the adaptability of the toolbox and our focus on bias were critical elements in the success of our workshops.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bias*
  • Biomedical Research / ethics*
  • California
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Decision Making
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Health Personnel / education*
  • Humans
  • Patient Education as Topic*
  • Publication Bias
  • Teaching / methods*
  • Thinking*