Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a common hereditary disorder which is characterized by fluid-filled cysts in the kidney. Mutation in either PKD1, encoding polycystin-1 (PC1), or PKD2, encoding polycystin-2 (PC2), are causative genes of PKD. Recent studies indicate that renal cilia, known as mechanosensors, detecting flow stimulation through renal tubules, have a critical function in maintaining homeostasis of renal epithelial cells. Because most proteins related to PKD are localized to renal cilia or have a function in ciliogenesis. PC1/PC2 heterodimer is localized to the cilia, playing a role in calcium channels. Also, disruptions of ciliary proteins, except for PC1 and PC2, could be involved in the induction of polycystic kidney disease. Based on these findings, various PKD mice models were produced to understand the roles of primary cilia defects in renal cyst formation. In this review, we will describe the general role of cilia in renal epithelial cells, and the relationship between ciliary defects and PKD. We also discuss mouse models of PKD related to ciliary defects based on recent studies.