Leukoaraiosis is associated with short- and long-term mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013 Oct;22(7):919-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2013.01.017. Epub 2013 Feb 21.


Background: There are few recent European studies of mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), particularly long-term follow-up studies. No previous European studies have included information on leukoaraiosis.

Methods: We studied all consecutive patients hospitalized with a first-ever intracerebral hemorrhage between 2005 and 2009 in a well-defined area and assessed the prognostic value of various baseline clinical and radiologic factors. Leukoaraiosis was scored on the baseline computed tomographic (CT) scan as described by van Swieten et al, with an overall score from 0 to 4.

Results: One hundred thirty-four patients were followed up for a median of 4.7 years (interquartile range 2.5-6.6). Overall mortality was 23% at 2 days, 30% at 7 days, 37% at 30 days, 46% at 1 year, and 53% at 2 years. Factors independently associated with increased 30-day mortality were warfarin use, leukoaraiosis score, intraventricular hemorrhage, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. Factors independently associated with long-term mortality in the 85 patients who survived the first 30 days were leukoaraiosis score, coronary heart disease, and initial GCS score. Recurrent ICH occurred in 4.5% and was significantly more frequent after lobar ICH than after ICH in other locations (11.1% v 0%; P = .025).

Conclusions: In unselected patients in Southern Norway with first-ever ICH, severe leukoaraiosis is independently associated with both 30-day and long-term mortality in 30-day survivors. Warfarin is independently associated with 30-day mortality and coronary heart disease with long-term mortality in 30-day survivors. Recurrent ICH is more frequent after lobar ICH than after ICH in other locations.

Keywords: Coronary heart disease; diabetes mellitus; fatality; hemorrhagic stroke; intracerebral hemorrhage; leukoaraiosis; mortality; prognosis; prognostic factors; stroke; warfarin; white matter changes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / complications
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / mortality*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leukoaraiosis / complications
  • Leukoaraiosis / mortality*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Registries
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index