Effects of dietary carbohydrate replaced with wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet

Nutrients. 2013 Feb 15;5(2):552-64. doi: 10.3390/nu5020552.


Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / blood
  • Animals
  • Cholesterol, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Diet, High-Fat*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / analysis
  • Gene Expression
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Leptin / genetics
  • Lipocalins / blood
  • Liver / chemistry
  • Male
  • Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase / blood
  • Oryza
  • Poaceae*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Receptors, Adiponectin / genetics
  • Triglycerides / analysis
  • Triticum
  • Weight Gain


  • Adiponectin
  • Cholesterol, Dietary
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
  • Leptin
  • Lipocalins
  • Receptors, Adiponectin
  • Triglycerides
  • adiponectin receptor 2, rat
  • Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase
  • Glucose