Multiple myeloma (MM) cells typically grow in focal lesions, stimulating osteoclasts that destroy bone and support MM. Osteoclasts and MM cells are hypermetabolic. The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is not only essential for cellular metabolism; it also affects activity of NAD-dependent enzymes, such as PARP-1 and SIRT-1. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT/PBEF/visfatin, encoded by PBEF1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in NAD(+) biosynthesis from nicotinamide. Coculture of primary MM cells with osteoclasts induced PBEF1 upregulation in both cell types. PBEF1 expression was higher in experimental myelomatous bones than in nonmyelomatous bone and higher in MM patients' plasma cells than in healthy donors' counterparts. APO866 is a specific PBEF1 inhibitor known to deplete cellular NAD(+). APO866 at low nanomolar concentrations inhibited growth of primary MM cells or MM cell lines cultured alone or cocultured with osteoclasts and induced apoptosis in these cells. PBEF1 activity and NAD(+) content were reduced in MM cells by APO866, resulting in lower activity of PARP-1 and SIRT-1. The inhibitory effect of APO866 on MM cell growth was abrogated by supplementation of extracellular NAD(+) or NAM. APO866 inhibited NF-κB activity in osteoclast precursors and suppressed osteoclast formation and activity. PBEF1 knockdown similarly inhibited MM cell growth and osteoclast formation. In the SCID-rab model, APO866 inhibited growth of primary MM and H929 cells and prevented bone disease. These findings indicate that MM cells and osteoclasts are highly sensitive to NAD(+) depletion and that PBEF1 inhibition represents a novel approach to target cellular metabolism and inhibit PARP-1 and bone disease in MM.
Published by Elsevier Inc.