Background: Through-the-scope clips are commonly used for endoscopic hemostasis of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, but their efficacy can be suboptimal in patients with complex bleeding lesions. The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) could overcome the limitations of through-the-scope clips by allowing compression of larger amounts of tissue, allowing a more efficient hemostasis. We analyzed the use of OTSC in a consecutive case series of patients with acute GI bleeding unresponsive to conventional endoscopic treatment modalities.
Methods: In a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in tertiary referral centers, patients undergoing emergency endoscopy for severe acute nonvariceal GI bleeding were treated with the OTSC after failure of conventional techniques. All patients underwent repeat endoscopy 2-4 days after the procedure. Data analysis included primary hemostasis, complications, and 1-month follow-up clinical outcome.
Results: During a 10-month period, 30 patients entered the study consecutively. Bleeding lesions unresponsive to conventional endoscopic treatment (saline/adrenaline injection and through-the-scope clipping) were located in the upper and lower GI tract in 23 and 7 cases, respectively. Primary hemostasis was achieved in 29 of 30 cases (97 %). One patient with bleeding from duodenal bulb ulcer required emergent selective radiological embolization. Rebleeding occurred in two patients 12 and 24 h after the procedure; they were successfully treated with conventional saline/adrenaline endoscopic injection.
Conclusions: OTSC is an effective and safe therapeutic option for severe acute GI bleeding when conventional endoscopic treatment modalities fail.