Detection and occurrence of microconstituents in reclaimed water used for irrigation--a potentially overlooked source

Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013 Jul;405(18):5925-35. doi: 10.1007/s00216-013-6799-z. Epub 2013 Feb 24.


An online SPE-HPLC-HESI-MS/MS method and an online SPE-HPLC-APPI-MS/MS method were developed to analyze 72 microconstituents in reclaimed water. In this study, 55 reclaimed water samples were collected from the sprinkler system for a year-long period at Florida International University Biscayne Bay Campus, where reclaimed water was reused for daily irrigation. Analysis results showed that several analytes were continuously detected in all reclaimed water samples and others will show rather transient signal increases. Coprostanol, bisphenol A, and DEET's maximum concentration exceeded 10,000 ng/L. The four most frequently detected compounds were diphenhydramine (100%), DEET (98%), atenolol (98%) and carbamazepine (96%).