Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has been implicated in the development of allergic inflammation by promoting Th2-type responses and has become a potential therapeutic target. Using in vitro T cell differentiation cultures we were able to validate that TSLP played a more critical role in the early development of Th2 immune responses with less significant enhancement of already developed Th2 responses. Adoptive transfer of naive DO11.10 ovalbumin-specific T cells followed by airway exposure to ovalbumin showed an early impairment of Th2 immune response in TSLP-/- mice compared to wild type mice during the development of a Th2 response. In contrast, transfer of already differentiated Th2 cells into TSLP-/- mice did not change lung pathology or Th2 cytokine production upon ovalbumin challenge compared to transfer into wild type mice. An allergen-induced Th2 airway model demonstrated that there was only a difference in gob5 expression (a mucus-associated gene) between wild type and TSLP-/- mice. Furthermore, when allergic animals with established disease were treated with a neutralizing anti-TSLP antibody there was no change in airway hyperreponsiveness (AHR) or Th2 cytokine production compared to the control antibody treated animals, whereas a change in gob5 gene expression was also observed similar to the TSLP-/- mouse studies. In contrast, when animals were treated with anti-TSLP during the initial stages of allergen sensitization there was a significant change in Th2 cytokines during the final allergen challenge. Collectively, these studies suggest that in mice TSLP has an important role during the early development of Th2 immune responses, whereas its role at later stages of allergic disease may not be as critical for maintaining the Th2-driven allergic disease.