Beyond the clinic: 'direct-to-consumer' genomic profiling services and pharmacogenomics

Pharmacogenomics. 2013 Mar;14(4):403-12. doi: 10.2217/pgs.13.10.


This article provides an overview of commercial pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics testing services offered online. The concept of 'beyond-the-clinic' (BTC) genomic testing is introduced to refer to the variety of formats in which these tests are offered and a typology of BTC models is developed. The authors review such models in relation to tests for individual drug response that are currently on offer. In conclusion, the authors argue that the evolving BTC domain provides opportunities for the pioneering of integrated data repositories, whose gatekeepers are patients or citizens. The authors anticipate that such developments will benefit pharmacogenomics sooner than other areas of medical practice.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Pharmacological
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis / economics
  • Genetic Markers*
  • Genetic Testing
  • Genome, Human
  • Genomics / economics
  • Genomics / methods*
  • Humans
  • Pharmacogenetics / economics
  • Pharmacogenetics / methods*


  • Biomarkers, Pharmacological
  • Genetic Markers