Objectives: To determine whether Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage renal disease (pRIFLE) criteria serve to characterize the pattern of acute kidney injury in critically ill pediatric patients. To identify if pRIFLE score will predict morbidity and mortality in our patient's cohort.
Design: Prospective cohort.
Setting: Multidisciplinary, tertiary care, ten-bed PICU.
Patients: A total of 266 patients admitted to PICU from November 2009 to November 2010.
Measurements and main results: The incidence of acute kidney injury in the PICU was 27.4%, of which 83.5% presented within 72 hours of admission to the PICU. Patients with acute kidney injury were younger; weighed less; were more likely to be on fluid overload greater than or equal to 10%; and were more likely to be on inotropic support, diuretics, or aminoglycosides. No difference in gender, use of other nephrotoxins, or mechanical ventilation was observed. Fluid overload greater than or equal to 10% was an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. In multivariate analysis, acute kidney injury and failure categories, as defined by pRIFLE, predicted mortality, hospital length of stay, and PICU length of stay.
Conclusions: In this cohort of critically ill pediatric patients, acute kidney injury identified by pRIFLE and fluid overload greater than or equal to 10% predicted increased morbidity and mortality. Implementation of pRIFLE scoring and close monitoring of fluid overload upon admission may help develop early interventions to prevent and treat acute kidney injury in critically ill children.