Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided laser-based thermotherapy in men with clinically low-risk prostate cancer and a concordant lesion at biopsy and MR imaging.
Materials and methods: This HIPAA-compliant phase I prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. Transperineal MR imaging-guided focal laser ablation for clinically low-risk prostate cancer was performed in patients with a Gleason score of 7 or less in three or fewer cores limited to one sextant obtained with transrectal ultrasonography (US)-guided biopsy and a concordant lesion at MR imaging. Lesions were targeted with a laser ablation system. Periprocedural complications were recorded. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score were collected before and after the procedure. MR imaging-guided biopsy of the ablation zone was performed 6 months after treatment. The prostate-specific antigen level, IPSS, and SHIM score before and after ablation were compared by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test.
Results: Treatment was successfully completed in nine patients (procedure duration, 2.5-4 hours; mean laser ablation duration, 4.3 minutes). Immediate contrast-enhanced posttreatment MR imaging showed a hypovascular defect in eight patients. Self-resolving perineal abrasion and focal paresthesia of the glans penis each occurred in one patient. The mean (± standard deviation) IPSS and SHIM score at baseline were 5.8 ± 5.3 and 19.0 ± 8.0, respectively. Average score changes were not significantly different from zero during follow-up (P = .18-.99). MR imaging-guided biopsy of the ablation zone showed no cancer in seven patients (78%) and Gleason grade 6 cancer in two (22%).
Conclusion: Transperineal MR imaging-guided focal laser ablation appears to be a feasible and safe focal therapy option for clinically low-risk prostate cancer.