Guarding the green: pathways to stomatal immunity

Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2013 Jun;26(6):626-32. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-12-12-0288-CR.


Guard cells regulate plant gas exchange and transpiration by modulation of stomatal aperture upon integrating external cues like photosynthetic effective illumination, CO2 levels and water availability and internal signals like abscisic acid (ABA). Being pores, stomata constitute a natural entry site for potentially harmful microbes. To prevent microbial invasion, stomata close upon perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), and this represents an important layer of active immunity at the preinvasive level. The signaling pathways leading to stomatal closure triggered by biotic and abiotic stresses employ several common components, such as reactive oxygen species, calcium, kinases, and hormones, suggesting considerable intersection between MAMP- and ABA-induced stomatal closures, which we will discuss in this review.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abscisic Acid / metabolism
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Carbon Dioxide / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Phosphotransferases / metabolism
  • Plant Diseases / immunology*
  • Plant Diseases / microbiology
  • Plant Physiological Phenomena
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Plant Stomata / immunology*
  • Plant Stomata / physiology
  • Plants / enzymology
  • Plants / immunology*
  • Plants / microbiology
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / immunology*
  • Stress, Physiological


  • Plant Proteins
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Abscisic Acid
  • Phosphotransferases
  • Calcium