Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are promising tools for gene therapeutic applications, in part because AAVs are nonpathogenic viruses, and vectors derived from them can drive long-term transgene expression without integration of the vector DNA into the host genome. AAVs are not strongly immunogenic, but they can, nonetheless, give rise to both a cellular and humoral immune response. As a result, a significant fraction of potential patients for AAV-based gene therapy harbors pre-existing antibodies against AAV. Because even very low levels of antibodies can prevent successful transduction, antecedent anti-AAV antibodies pose a serious obstacle to the universal application of AAV gene therapy. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the role of anti-AAV antibodies in AAV-based gene therapy with a particular emphasis on approaches to overcome the hurdle that they pose.