Determinants of exposure to second-hand smoke at home and outside the home among students aged 11-17 years: results from the Mumbai Student Tobacco Survey 2010

Indian J Cancer. 2012 Oct-Dec;49(4):419-24. doi: 10.4103/0019-509X.107750.


Background: While no level of exposure to Second-hand smoke (SHS) is free of risk, 37% of students from South-East Asia region were exposed to SHS.

Aims: To estimate the prevalence of exposure to SHS and identify predictors of exposure to SHS at home and outside the home among 1,511 school students aged 11-17 years.

Setting: The City of Mumbai.

Study design: This study used a two-stage cluster sampling design.

Materials and methods: Mumbai Student Tobacco Survey (MSTS) was a cross-sectional study, using anonymous self-administered structured questionnaire among students. The probability of schools being selected was proportional to the enrolment into grades 8 to 10. The study aimed to sample around 60 students from selected classes in each chosen school.

Statistical analysis: Proportions, 95% confidence interval and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were used.

Results: About 79.9% students were aware about the current smoking ban at public places and 88.1% were knowledgeable about the deleterious influence of SHS on them. Overall, 16.5% of students were exposed to SHS at home, and 39.9% outside of the home. Students from families where at least one parent used tobacco were at the greatest risk of SHS exposure at home in addition to outside the home exposure. Those students who were not aware about the smoking ban in public places were at a significantly higher risk of SHS exposure outside the home.

Conclusion: Self-reported tobacco use status, age, parents' tobacco use, close friends' smoking, and the route they take to school were significant determinants of exposure to SHS at home and outside the home.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Data Collection
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects
  • Family Characteristics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India
  • Male
  • Parents
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoke-Free Policy
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / statistics & numerical data*


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution