Active and passive smoking and the risk of myocardial infarction in 24,968 men and women during 11 year of follow-up: the Tromsø Study

Eur J Epidemiol. 2013 Aug;28(8):659-67. doi: 10.1007/s10654-013-9785-z. Epub 2013 Feb 27.


Active smoking is a well-established risk factor for myocardial infarction, but less is known about the impact of passive smoking, and possible sex differences in risk related to passive smoking. We investigated active and passive smoking as risk factors for myocardial infarction in an 11-year follow-up of 11,762 men and 13,206 women included in the Tromsø Study. There were a total of 769 and 453 incident cases of myocardial infarction in men and women, respectively. We found linear age-adjusted relationships between both active and passive smoking and myocardial infarction incidence in both sexes. The relationships seem to be stronger for women than for men. Age-adjusted analyses indicated a stronger relationship with passive smoking in ever-smokers than in never-smokers. After adjustment for important confounders (body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and physical activity) the associations with active and passive smoking were still statistically significant. Adjusting for active smoking when assessing the effect of passive smoking and vice versa, indicated that the effect of passive smoking in men may be explained by their own active smoking. In women, living with a smoker ≥30 years after the age of 20 increased the myocardial infarction risk by 40 %, even after adjusting for active smoking. Passive smoking is a risk factor for myocardial infarction on its own, but whereas the effect for men seems to be explained by their own active smoking, the effect in females remains statistically significant.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology*
  • Myocardial Infarction / etiology
  • Norway / epidemiology
  • Population Surveillance
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects*


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  • Cholesterol