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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2013 Apr;97(4):689-97.
doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.051730. Epub 2013 Feb 27.

Substituting Dietary Monounsaturated Fat for Saturated Fat Is Associated With Increased Daily Physical Activity and Resting Energy Expenditure and With Changes in Mood

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Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Substituting Dietary Monounsaturated Fat for Saturated Fat Is Associated With Increased Daily Physical Activity and Resting Energy Expenditure and With Changes in Mood

C Lawrence Kien et al. Am J Clin Nutr. .
Free PMC article

Erratum in

  • Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug;98(2):511

Abstract

Background: The Western diet increases risk of metabolic disease.

Objective: We determined whether lowering the ratio of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids in the Western diet would affect physical activity and energy expenditure.

Design: With the use of a balanced design, 2 cohorts of 18 and 14 young adults were enrolled in separate randomized, double-masked, crossover trials that compared a 3-wk high-palmitic acid diet (HPA; similar to the Western diet fat composition) to a low-palmitic acid and high-oleic acid diet (HOA; similar to the Mediterranean diet fat composition). All foods were provided by the investigators, and the palmitic acid (PA):oleic acid (OA) ratio was manipulated by adding different oil blends to the same foods. In both cohorts, we assessed physical activity (monitored continuously by using accelerometry) and resting energy expenditure (REE). To gain insight into a possible mood disturbance that might explain changes in physical activity, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered in cohort 2.

Results: Physical activity was higher during the HOA than during the HPA in 15 of 17 subjects in cohort 1 (P = 0.008) (mean: 12% higher; P = 0.003) and in 12 of 12 subjects in the second, confirmatory cohort (P = 0.005) (mean: 15% higher; P = 0.003). When the HOA was compared with the HPA, REE measured during the fed state was 3% higher for cohort 1 (P < 0.01), and REE was 4.5% higher in the fasted state for cohort 2 (P = 0.04). POMS testing showed that the anger-hostility score was significantly higher during the HPA (P = 0.007).

Conclusions: The replacement of dietary PA with OA was associated with increased physical activity and REE and less anger. Besides presumed effects on mitochondrial function (increased REE), the dietary PA:OA ratio appears to affect behavior. The second cohort was derived from a study that was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as R01DK082803.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01612234.

Figures

FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 1.
Physical activity and REE. A and B: Effects of diet condition on individual changes in physical activity during the 2 experimental diets. Diet effects were analyzed by using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test in cohorts 1 (n = 17; P = 0. 008) (A) and 2 (n = 12; P = 0.005) (B). Lean subjects are designated by circles, and obese subjects are designated by triangles. Effects of diet condition on average (mean ± SEM) physical activity were calculated in cohorts 1 (HPA: 327 ± 26 counts · min−1 · d−1; HOA: 367 ± 33 counts · min−1 · d−1) (C) and 2 (HPA: 280 ± 36 counts · min−1 · d−1; HOA: 323 ± 38 counts · min−1 · d−1) (D). Diet effects were analyzed by using a repeated-measures ANOVA, including sequence and treatment effects, with the baseline value as a covariate. Effects of diets on mean (±SEM) REE (kcal/min) in the fasted and fed state were calculated in cohorts 1 (n = 18; HPA: fasted, 1.05 ± 0.03 kcal/min; fed, 1.22 ± 0.04 kcal/min; HOA: fasted, 1.06 ± 0.04 kcal/min; fed, 1.25 ± 0.04 kcal/min) (E) and 2 (n = 11; HPA: fasted, 1.04 ± 0.06 kcal/min; fed, 1.41 ± 0.08 kcal/min; HOA: fasted, 1.09 ± 0.06 kcal/min; fed, 1.43 ± 0.10 kcal/min) (F). *,**Diet effect, *P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01. HOA, high–oleic acid diet; HPA, high–palmitic acid diet; REE, resting energy expenditure.
FIGURE 2.
FIGURE 2.
Changes in anger-hostility and TMD scores during the HPA and HOA. Diet effects were analyzed by using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. A: Ten of 12 men and women exhibited a lower anger-hostility score with the HOA (P = 0.005). Two pairs of subjects showed identical, anger-hostility scores with both the HPA and HOA (5 and 2 for 2 subjects and 4 and 2 for 2 subjects, respectively), which resulted in 2 pairs of overlapping points. Thus, only 10 distinct data points are visible, although all data points were included in the statistical analysis. B: Eight of 12 men and women exhibited a lower TMD score with the HOA (P = 0.06). Two subjects (one lean subject and one obese subject) had a score of 10 with the HPA; we labeled this data point for the obese subject. Lean subjects are designated by circles, and obese subjects are designated by triangles. HOA, high–oleic acid diet; HPA, high–palmitic acid diet; TMD, total mood disturbance.

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