The GFR and GFR decline cannot be accurately estimated in type 2 diabetics

Kidney Int. 2013 Jul;84(1):164-73. doi: 10.1038/ki.2013.47. Epub 2013 Feb 27.


There are no adequate studies that have formally tested the performance of different estimating formulas in patients with type 2 diabetes both with and without overt nephropathy. Here we evaluated the agreement between baseline GFRs, GFR changes at month 6, and long-term GFR decline measured by iohexol plasma clearance or estimated by 15 creatinine-based formulas in 600 type 2 diabetics followed for a median of 4.0 years. Ninety patients were hyperfiltering. The number of those identified by estimation formulas ranged from 0 to 24:58 were not identified by any formula. Baseline GFR was significantly underestimated and a 6-month GFR reduction was missed in hyperfiltering patients. Long-term GFR decline was also underestimated by all formulas in the whole study group and in hyper-, normo-, and hypofiltering patients considered separately. Five formulas generated positive slopes in hyperfiltering patients. Baseline concordance correlation coefficients and total deviation indexes ranged from 32.1% to 92.6% and from 0.21 to 0.53, respectively. Concordance correlation coefficients between estimated and measured long-term GFR decline ranged from -0.21 to 0.35. The agreement between estimated and measured values was also poor within each subgroup considered separately. Thus, our study questions the use of any estimation formula to identify hyperfiltering patients and monitor renal disease progression and response to treatment in type 2 diabetics without overt nephropathy.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / blood
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / diagnosis
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / etiology*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / physiopathology
  • Disease Progression
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate*
  • Humans
  • Iohexol
  • Italy
  • Kidney / physiopathology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Biological
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Slovenia
  • Time Factors


  • Biomarkers
  • Iohexol
  • Creatinine