Association between water consumption from polycarbonate containers and bisphenol A intake during harsh environmental conditions in summer

Environ Sci Technol. 2013 Apr 2;47(7):3333-43. doi: 10.1021/es304038k. Epub 2013 Mar 15.


With the exception of polycarbonate (PC) baby bottles, little attention has been paid to bisphenol A (BPA) intake from packaged water consumption (PC water dispensers), especially during summer weather conditions. We determined the magnitude and variability of urinary BPA concentrations during summer in 35 healthy individuals largely relying upon PC packaged water to satisfy their potable needs. We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure urinary BPA concentrations. A questionnaire was administered in July/August and a spot urine sample was collected on the same day and 7 days after the completion of the interview (without intervention). Linear regression was performed to assess the association of variables, such as water consumption from different sources, on urinary BPA levels for the average of the two urine samples. A significant positive association (p = 0.017) was observed between PC water consumption and urinary BPA levels in females, even after adjusting for covariates in a multivariate regression model. The geometric mean of daily BPA intake back-calculated from urinary BPA data was 118 ng · (kg bw)(-1) · day(-1), nearly double the average intake levels observed in biomonitoring studies worldwide. High urinary BPA levels were partially ascribed to summer's high PC water consumption and weather characteristics (high temperatures, >40 °C; very high UV index values, >8), which could be causing BPA leaching from PC. It is suggested that PC-based water consumption could serve as a proxy for urinary BPA, although the magnitude of its relative contribution to overall daily intake requires further investigation.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / urine*
  • Cosmetics / analysis
  • Creatinine / urine
  • Cyprus
  • Demography
  • Drinking Water*
  • Drinking*
  • Female
  • Food, Preserved / analysis
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Phenols / urine*
  • Polycarboxylate Cement / chemistry*
  • Seasons*


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Cosmetics
  • Drinking Water
  • Phenols
  • Polycarboxylate Cement
  • polycarbonate
  • Creatinine
  • bisphenol A