Craniomaxillofacial (CMF) trauma occurs in isolation or in combination with other serious injuries, including intracranial, spinal, and upper- and lower-body injuries. It is a major cause of expensive treatment and rehabilitation requirements, temporary or lifelong morbidity, and loss of human productivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of CMF trauma in a large patient sample within a 15-year time frame. Between 1991 and 2005, CMF trauma data were collected from 14,654 patients with 35,129 injuries at the Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery in Innsbruck, assessing a plethora of parameters such as injury type and mechanism as well as age and gender distribution over time. Three main groups of CMF trauma were evaluated: facial bone fractures, dentoalveolar trauma, and soft tissue injuries. Statistical comparisons were carried out using a chi-square test. This was followed by a logistic regression analysis to determine the impact of the five main causes for CMF injury. Older people were more prone to soft tissue lesions with a rising risk of 2.1% per year older, showing no significant difference between male and female patients. Younger patients were at higher risk of suffering from dentoalveolar trauma with an increase of 4.4% per year younger. This number was even higher (by 19.6%) for female patients. The risk of sustaining facial bone fractures increased each year by 4.6%. Male patients had a 66.4% times higher risk of suffering from this type of injury. In addition, 2550 patients (17.4%) suffered from 3834 concomitant injuries of other body parts. In summary, we observed changing patterns of CMF trauma over the last 15 years, paralleled by advances in refined treatment and management options for rehabilitation and reconstruction of patients suffering from CMF trauma.
Keywords: craniomaxillofacial trauma; epidemiology; injury causes; injury types.