Metastatic melanoma is one of the most challenging malignancies to treat and often has a poor outcome. Until recently, systemic treatment options were limited, with poor response rates and no survival advantage. However, the treatment of metastatic melanoma has been revolutionized by developments in targeted therapy and immunotherapy; the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, and anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody, ipilimumab, are the first agents to demonstrate a survival benefit. Despite the success of these treatments, most patients eventually progress, and research into response and resistance mechanisms, rationally designed combination therapies and evaluation of the role of these agents in the adjuvant setting is critically important.
Keywords: BRAF inhibitor; cutaneous; immunotherapy; ipilimumab; melanoma; mutations.