Evaluation of the effect of beetroot juice on DMBA-induced damage in liver and mammary gland of female Sprague-Dawley rats

Phytother Res. 2014 Jan;28(1):55-61. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4951. Epub 2013 Mar 1.


Red beetroot contains a specific class of antioxidants collectively named betalains, which have been shown to have anticarcinogenic and anti-inflamatory potential. We investigated the effect of beetroot juice on the hepatic and mammary gland carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, DNA damage and liver injury, altered by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). In the liver, pretreatment with beetroot juice significantly decreased levels and activities of the majority of tested biochemical parameters, elevated by DMBA. Feeding with beetroot juice decreased the activities of CYP1A1 and 1A2 and increased phase II enzymes. The activities of all enzymes tested were enhanced in the animals treated with DMBA alone and in combination with beetroot juice. The most significant changes in the level of the enzymes tested were observed for

Nad(p)h: quinone oxidoreductase-1. In mammary gland, beetroot juice induced the level of glutathione S-transferase pi, enzyme involved in active metabolites of DMBA detoxification. The final effects of beetroot juice are tissue specific and depend on the class of carcinogen.

Keywords: 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene; beetroot juice; cytochrome P450; liver; mammary gland; phase II enzymes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene / adverse effects*
  • Animals
  • Beta vulgaris / chemistry*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 / metabolism
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2
  • Cytochromes / metabolism
  • DNA Damage
  • Female
  • Glutathione S-Transferase pi / metabolism
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Inactivation, Metabolic
  • Liver / drug effects*
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Liver / pathology
  • Mammary Glands, Animal / drug effects*
  • Mammary Glands, Animal / enzymology
  • Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology
  • NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone) / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Roots / chemistry
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley


  • Cytochromes
  • Plant Extracts
  • 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene
  • Cyp1a2 protein, rat
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2
  • NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)
  • NQO1 protein, rat
  • Glutathione S-Transferase pi
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Gstp1 protein, rat