Photosystem II (PSII) is an integral-membrane, multisubunit complex that initiates electron flow in oxygenic photosynthesis. The biogenesis of this complex machine involves the concerted assembly of at least 20 different polypeptides as well as the incorporation of a variety of inorganic and organic cofactors. Many factors have recently been identified that constitute an integrative network mediating the stepwise assembly of PSII components. One recurring theme is the subcellular organization of the assembly process in specialized membranes that form distinct biogenesis centers. Here, we review our current knowledge of the molecular components and events involved in PSII assembly and their high degree of evolutionary conservation.