Thromboses (VTE) in children were associated with medical diseases with and without acquired or inherited thrombophilic risk factors (IT). Disease recurrence rates vary between 3% in children with a first event during the neonatal period and 21% in children with idiopathic VTE. Recently reported systematic reviews showed significant associations between VTE and factor V G1691A or factor II G20210A mutations, protein C, protein S and antithrombin deficiency, more pronounced when combined IT were involved. The factor II G20210A mutation, protein C, protein S, and antithrombin deficiency did also play an important role at VTE recurrence. Primarily asymptomatic family members of pediatric VTE index cases showed annual VTE incidence rates of 2.82% in carriers of antithrombin, protein C, or protein S deficiency, 0.42% and 0.25% in carriers of the factor II G202010A or V G1691A mutation, and 0.10% in relatives with no IT.
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