Control of inflammation by integration of environmental cues by regulatory T cells

J Clin Invest. 2013 Mar;123(3):939-44. doi: 10.1172/JCI57175. Epub 2013 Mar 1.


Tregs have been implicated in control of homeostasis in the immune system and beyond. These cells restrain inflammatory responses to self antigens, commensal microorganisms, allergens, and pathogens and adapt their homeostatic and functional capabilities to a particular environment. In this review, we discuss a general model of integration of environmental cues by Tregs in which specialized Treg homeostatic, migratory, and suppression programs are established in dynamically changing inflammatory environments by maintaining an optimal threshold of activation of transcription factors involved in regulation of the corresponding type of effector immune responses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Cytokines / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Inflammation Mediators / physiology
  • STAT Transcription Factors / genetics
  • STAT Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / physiology


  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • STAT Transcription Factors