Insulin resistance in the vasculature

J Clin Invest. 2013 Mar;123(3):1003-4. doi: 10.1172/JCI67166. Epub 2013 Mar 1.


Insulin resistance is typically defined as a reduced ability of insulin to induce glucose uptake by target tissues such as fat and skeletal muscle cells. It accompanies several disease states, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatitis C, and polycystic ovary syndrome, and is a primary feature of metabolic syndrome. Outside of its effects on blood glucose levels, insulin resistance is also associated with a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. In 1996, Alain Baron, Helmut Steinberg, and colleagues demonstrated that insulin resistance is associated with endothelial dysfunction. This seminal observation led to significant advances in our understanding of insulin's action in health and disease.

Publication types

  • Comment

MeSH terms

  • Blood Pressure / drug effects*
  • Body Composition / physiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology*
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology*
  • Glucose / pharmacokinetics*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / pharmacology*
  • Insulin / physiology*
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Methacholine Chloride / pharmacology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / blood supply*
  • Nitroprusside / pharmacology*
  • Obesity / physiopathology*
  • Regional Blood Flow / drug effects*
  • Vasodilation / physiology*


  • Insulin
  • Methacholine Chloride
  • Nitroprusside
  • Glucose