The application of phase shifts in NMR for flow measurement

Magn Reson Med. 1990 May;14(2):230-41. doi: 10.1002/mrm.1910140209.


A brief overview of the history of the application of phase shifts in NMR, and in particular NMR imaging, is presented. The imaging methods include direct phase mapping, Fourier flow imaging (where the flow data are Fourier transformed into one dimension of an image), and alternative methods, where flow-related phase shifts are utilized for flow measurement from the magnitude of the signal. A discussion then follows of the principal errors that can affect the accuracy of the various flow imaging techniques, with particular reference to the phase mapping methods that have been used extensively in our institution. The results from a number of experiments are included to illustrate the extent of the errors and methods of removing or minimizing these effects are suggested.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Circulation*
  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Fourier Analysis
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Models, Cardiovascular
  • Models, Structural